DEVICE FOR SAFELY TRANSPLANTING
LEAF PINES AND OTHER EVERGREENS
North Carolina State Library
5 5 • n
A Deuice for Saf elu Transplanting
Long Leaf Pines and Other
Qoldsboro, North Carolina
"Here's to the Land of the Long Leaf Pine !
The Summer Land, where the sun doth shine,
Where the weak grow strong, and the strong grow great ;
Here's to 'Down Home,' the Old North State."
iJBM^HE writer, in his endeavor to enhance the horti-
WJ cultural effect around his home in Goldsboro,
N. C, brought in from the nearby woods about
fifty small long leaf pines, ranging in height from two
and one-half to four and one-half feet. These grew al-
most exclusively in sandy soil, and an effort was made
to cut under the roots, so as to bring as much of the roots,
together with the surrounding soil, as possible. Each
tree was then carefully wrapped and tied in burlap.'
Owing to the nature of the soil, however, it was next to
impossible to form any adhesion between the root and
the soil, and after transplanting these trees and anx-
iously awaiting signs of life, they all died during
the next spring and summer, with one lone exception.
This lone survivor had been taken up on a different day
during a very cold spell when the ground was frozen,
and, in consequence, the ball of soil was taken up with
the roots intact and thus transplanted. This tree was
kept well watered during the first season and survived.
Planning and Operation of Device
The above experience has led the writer to the follow-
ing conclusion : •
That in order for the transplanted tree to receive as little check
as possible in becoming established to its new habitat, it is essen-
tial that the greater portion of its fibrous and hair roots should
be removed in their original position, encased in their native
soil. Thus the roots of the tree will be enabled to take from its
original soil the stored up nourishment and continue, uninter-
ruptedly, the vital processes. This constitutes the basic idea of
a device for transplanting.
After repeated trials and experiments, a transplanting
receptacle was designed to meet the above situation. This
is shown in Illustration No. 1. A patent, was issued for
this device by the United States Government on May
31st, 1921. This illustration shows the transplanting re-
ceptical lying on its hinged back, the inserted bottom
with its pins and slides being in the immediate fore-
ground of this illustration. This receptical is preferably
made of sheet iron and is provided with a pair of semi-
circular side walls (Illustration No. 2), which are prefer-
aby of less width at their lower than their upper edges,
these side walls being hingedly secured together so that a
receptacle of tapering construction is provided.
Illustration No. 1.
Of Material Assistance to the Life and Growth of the
Than spi. a n ted Tree.
The advantages of this tapering construction are :
First, to accomodate itself to the root system, same
being developed to a greater degree nearer the surface
and gradually tapering toward the bottom of the tree,
as you go deeper into the soil.
Second, the lower end of the receptacle when closed,
being of appreciably less circumference than the upper
end, the walls of same materially assist in supporting the
roots and column of soil it is intended to transplant.
How to Use the Tbansplanting Receptacle
In order to transplant the tree, it is first necessary to
dig a circle around the tree (Illustration No. 2), a small
fraction less than the size of the top of the receptacle
and dig down until the larger roots disappear, the depth
not to exceed the depth of the receptacle, also bearing in
mind the general outline of the receptacle. The next
step is to open the receptacle (Illustration No. 2), place
same around the column of soil and roots and fasten
securely the sides of the receptacle by drawing together
the straps through the buckles. The receptacle is now
ready to have its bottom inserted. Project two iron
pins through holes in front at bottom of receptacle.
Showing Soil Around Pine Removed in Proper Form, Ready
to be Surrounded by Transplanting Receptacle.
These pins (see Illustration No. 3) are to penetrate the
column of soil and are to rest in slots on the same level
at the back of the receptacle. These pins form the main
support for four slides, which are then to be inserted
through the slots into the walls of the receptacle and
column of soil.
Illustration No. 3.
Transplanting Receptacle Properly Attached to Tree to
be Transplanted Showing Bottom Inserted.
These slots are placed at intervals of about ninety
degrees and rest immediately on the pins, thereby forming
the bottom of the receptacle, covering sufficient surface
and being sufficienty rigid to prevent slippage or displace-
ment of soil and roots. The plant is then ready to be
taken up and transplanted. (See Illustration No. 4.)
Illustration No. 4.
Showing Transplanting Receptacle in Act of Being De-
tached Upon Transplanting of Tree.
This operation is quite simple. A hole is dug of suffi-
cient size not only to admit the receptacle, but to provide
for the withdrawal of the pins and slides forming the
bottom. The receptacle, containing the tree, is placed
in the hole, so that the original soil line will be about
1% inches lower than the new soil line. The pins and
slides are then withdrawn. The space immediately sur-
rounding the receptacle should be filled with fine fertile
soil up to the first buckle and tamped. Then the buckle
is opened. The next fill is up to the second buckle, which
is then released, and so on to the last buckle, which is
then opened and the walls of the opened receptacle with-
drawn. The new soil should be well watered after filling
in. Using this receptacle in the above described man-
ner, the writer was successful in safely transplanting
thirty-five out of forty young long leaf pine -trees,
ranging in size from 2^4 to 5 feet. These were brought
in from the forest February, 1920, and today show a
healthy, vigorous condition, making a pronounced new
growth of limb and leaf. Illustration "No. 5 graphically
shows a small pine, its root system and "outline of can"
or receptacle, it being the intention to show as near as
possible the position of the roots and soil and the
portion that is taken up with the tree when transplanted.
Top or Soil
Outline of Ca
Illustration No. 5.
Showing Root System of Small Pine and Portion Taken up
With the Transplanting Receptacle.
The roots outside the "outline of can" are cut away
and removed. The height of this particular tree is 3%
feet above the soil line. The depth of the receptacle is 21
inches, its diameter at top and bottom is 18 and 12%
inches respectively. Approximately sixty-five per cent
of the tree's root system is retained. Trees up to five
feet in height can be safely transplanted with a receptacle
of the above dimensions. If it is desired to transplant
larger trees, all that is necessary is to increase proportion-
ately the size and strength of receptacle. Theoretically,
this device can be applied to any class of evergreen or
deciduous trees with fair prospect of success. Its limita-
tions on large trees, however, are primarily due to con-
siderations of practicability and expense.
Transplanting the Holly
The holly, unlike the pine, has no tap root. Most of
its roots are lateral ones and the larger portion is near
the surface. Accordingly a receptacle of less depth is
required. Illustration No. 6 shows a holly in transplant-
ing receptacle ready to be transferred to its new habitat.
Its height is 11 feet and diameter S 1 /^ inches at soil line.
A receptacle was provided with a diameter at the top
and bottom of 29 and 21 inches respectively, the depth
of the same being 16 inches. Such a receptacle accomo-
dated about sixty per cent of its root system. Nearly all
branches and leaves were retained, only a few top ones
being cut off for convenience. This tree was transplanted
in March, 1920, and the accompanying illustration (No.
7) shows its vigor on May, 1921. Although the holly is
of slow growth, the development of this particular speci-
men has been continuous and uninterrupted, the limbs
and foliage showing decided growth, accompanied with
an abundance of large green berries, a gratifying result
only fourteen months after transplanting.
With such an arrangement, it is practicable to trans-
plant native or nursery grown evergreen shrubs and trees
from one locality to another with a reasonable degree of
safety. It is likewise easy to conceive of the transference
of distinct groups of plants or trees — perhaps a new young
forest — to another region that has hitherto contained
none of these beautiful specimens.
Illustration No. 6.
Holly Brought in From Forest in Receptacle Awaiting
Transference to its New Home. March, 1920.
Illustration No. 7.
The Transplanted Holly. May, 1921.
(See Illustration No. 6)
North Carolina State Library
THE STORY OF THE PINE
^W^HE pine belongs to the Forest Primeval — it is the
Lljy oldest living representative of geological time
and has retained its simplicity of floral structure,
typifying the vegetation of earlier ages. Its distribution
in the United States is widespread. There are thirty-
nine species. New England and the Middle Atlantic
States contain seven, and seven grow principally in the
Costal Plain Region of the South, while the west con-
tains twenty-five varities.
The long leaf pine — the emblem of the South, found
from Virginia to Tampa Bay and west to the Mississipppi
is not only a most beautiful tree horticulturally, but it
is of great utility in a commercial way. The trees often
reach one hundred feet in height, the trunks are slender,
rarely exceeding three and one half feet in diameter.
Their leaves, or needles, are from ten to eighteen inches
long and form dense tufts at the ends of the branches,
"being flexible, they droop and sway on ends of erect
branches like shining fountains, their emerald lightened
by the silvery sheaves that invest each group of three."
Their appeal has already been made known to the north-
ern tourist passing through the Southland, and the sap-
ling long leaf pine has already begun to enter the north-
ern market as an important evergreen for Christmas-
Although the pine has come down to us from the count-
less ages of the past, it nevertheless has suffered in its
race for life on account of its inability to reproduce itself
with the vigor of other trees. As soon as it is cut down,
the root dies, and there exists no power of sending forth
shoots from the stump and forming new growth. As we
have seen, it is likewise most difficult to transplant, ex-
cept by using the Transplanting Receptacle.
COMMERCIAL PRINTING COMPANY, RALEIGH, N. C.
GC 635.977 W422d
A device for safely transplanting long I
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HAY 1 1
■VII J. J.
m i s
A device for safely transplanting long
leaf pines and other evergreens